Normal Menstruation, Abnormal Menstruation

by Agnes Krisantibullet
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Reviewed by dr. Bandoro
Normal Menstruation, Abnormal Menstruation
Normal Menstruation, Abnormal Menstruation

Menstruation occurs when pregnancy does not occur. Normally, once a month. Every woman has menstrual irregularities at some point in her life. Determine whether the irregularity remains "normal" or "abnormal."

Menstruation is a sign of female puberty

Between the ages of 11 and 14, menstruation usually begins. This monthly cycle is a series of changes that a woman's body experiences in preparation for a possible pregnancy.

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS), which includes symptoms such as dizziness, back pain, acne, breast tenderness, and sensitivity, typically precedes menstruation.

Menstruation occurs when an ovulated egg is not fertilized immediately by a sperm cell. As a result, the previously thickened uterine wall—which is prepared as a place for the fetus to grow—will decay and exit through the vagina.

Each woman's menstrual cycle is unique, as is what she will experience throughout her life. Despite the fact that it is called a monthly cycle, many irregularities can occur. For example, a girl's menstruation begins with light bleeding, but becomes very heavy the following month.

Other anomalies may include time lapse, duration, and effects. Some of the irregularities are dizziness, stomach cramps, or weakness that leads to inactivity.

Menstruation lasts 4-7 days in adolescent girls, and cycles repeat every 21-45 days. As the girls grow older, the duration can only be between 3 and 5 days, and the cycle repeats every 28 days.

During menstruation, women typically lose 30 to 45 mL of blood. Approximately 2-3 tablespoons. The duration, volume, and frequency of menstrual periods decrease with age until they stop completely.

So, do you understand your menstrual cycle? Pay more attention to it because menstrual patterns can reveal more about our bodies' health.

"Normal" cycle is what is usually experienced

The term "normal" refers to a common occurrence. Given that each woman's menstrual cycle is unique, a "normal" cycle cannot be used to compare individuals. For instance, you and your sister.

Risa goes through a monthly menstrual cycle. She usually has stomach cramps on her first day. Gina, her sister, has a menstrual cycle every two months. She doesn’t have stomach cramps, but does have dizziness and back pain. Risa's condition is "normal" to Risa, while Gina's condition is "normal" to Gina.

Even if it appears to be relative, the "normal" menstrual cycle has limitations.

Every month, the menstrual cycle lasts the same amount of time. A minor shift is acceptable as long as it is within 21-45 days. Cycles that feel progressively forward or backward but are consistent—or that do not occur for more than a year—are still considered normal.

Cycles are "abnormal" if menstruation is not as usual

"Abnormal" is a condition that does not usually occur. Therefore, only you know whether menstruation has been unusual in the last few months.

Many thought that the initial abnormality was just an ordinary irregularity. Not a few also know the cause, for example, being overtired from work, eating irregularly, not getting enough rest, or not exercising. It is reasonable because a cycle is called abnormal if it repeats and affects your daily life.

For women who have never given birth, some of these abnormalities may occur.

1. Menorrhagia

Have you ever heard of someone suffering from prolonged and heavy bleeding? Or perhaps you have? It is still considered normal if a large volume of bleeding, or "flooding," occurs only on the first or up to the third day. But be cautious if it lasts seven days or more! It could be menorrhagia.

Menorrhagia is commonly caused by:

  • Hormone imbalance, particularly to estrogen and progesterone.
  • Puberty.
  • Infection of the cervix.
  • Cervical inflammatory disease.
  • Hypothyroidism. Thyroid hormone deficiency causes fatigue, constipation, dry skin, and cold sensitivity.
  • Fibroids. Noncancerous tumors (myomas) that grow inside or outside the uterus during the fertile period.
  • Diet and exercise modifications.

Bleeding from menorrhagia can reach 80 ml per menstruation (equivalent to 5.5 tablespoons or one-third of a cup). Pads or tampons must be changed every 1-2 hours.

Sufferers may experience dizziness, weakness, and anemia during their menstruation due to the large amount of blood that comes out.

Menorrhagia is exacerbated by blood clotting disorders such as hemophilia and Von Willebrand's disease.

2. Amenorrhea

It is the abnormal cessation of the menstrual cycle. Primary amenorrhea occurs when a girl doesn’t have her first menstruation by the age of 16.

The most common cause is a pituitary gland problem. Secondary amenorrhea occurs when a woman's monthly cycle is disrupted for six months or more.

Among the causes of amenorrhea are:

  • Anorexia, also known as a loss of appetite.
  • Hyperthyroidism. Excess thyroid hormone production causes symptoms such as excessive anxiety, insomnia, and excessive sweating.
  • Ovarian cyst.
  • Fluid pockets that form on or near the surface of the ovaries.
  • Significant weight change.
  • Cessation of contraceptive use.
  • Pregnancy.

3. Dysmenorrhea

During PMS, abdominal spasms or cramps are common. Alternatively, when the uterus contracts, it indicates that menstruation has begun. But, some women suffer from excruciatingly painful spasms known as dysmenorrhea.

Some of the symptoms of dysmenorrhea include:

  • Uterine fibroids.
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Female reproductive organ infection, such as the cervix, uterus, or ovaries.
  • Endometriosis. Endometrium (abnormal tissue) growth outside the uterus.

Menstruation occurs in married women, mothers, and women of middle age

The use of hormonal contraception by married women, such as birth control pills, can alter the menstrual cycle. This is not unusual. However, if the changes are becoming increasingly troubling, see a doctor right away.

The cycle will shift as we enter our 40s. It could be getting longer or shorter. Heavier or lighter. Frequently or rarely. When it reaches the 50s, the cycle will come to a halt because ovulation will no longer occur. Menopause.

Uterine cancer is something to be aware of during menopause. This cancer's risk rises with age. If abnormal bleeding occurs suddenly, you must observe it and seek medical attention.

Regaining the menstrual cycle

Someone tends to be afraid and worried when they realize that their menstrual cycle has suddenly changed. Especially if it leads to abnormalities. Here are some tips to get your menstrual cycle back on track.

  • Practice yoga.
  • Maintain weight.
  • Exercise regularly.
  • Take ginger and cinnamon.
  • Take vitamins during your cycle.
  • Consume apple cider vinegar every day.
  • Consume pineapple fruit.

Pay attention to your menstrual cycle. Take note of the alarming changes. Determine whether the change is only temporary or permanent.

Consult an obstetrics and gynecology specialist (obgyn) to get the proper examination and treatment.

If you have any questions about abnormal menstruation cycles, click on WhatsApp.

ReferenceHealthline. Accessed in 2023. Menstrual Problem: Diagnosis, Treatment and Outlook. Healthline. Accessed in 2023. How to Get Regular Periods Naturally: 8 Home Remedies for Irregular Periods. Mayo Clinic. Accessed in 2023. Menstrual Cycle: What’s Normal, What’s Not. Step for Living. Accessed in 2023. Normal and Abnormal Periods.